Managing spent nuclear fuel after its removal from reactors is one of the most crucial issues in the fuel cycle. At present, 6,500 t of spent fuel is removed from 438 reactors around the world every year (ref. IAEA, incl. Japan). Some 385,000 t was removed between 1970 and 2015 and, according to IEA forecasts based on a +2°C scenario, 700,000 t of fuel will have been unloaded over the period from 1970 to 2040 (ref. World Nuclear Outlook 2014).
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